Odisha is the most disaster prone state in the country:15th Finance Commission
A Disaster Risk Index (DRI) has been prepared by the FFC that assigns scores to each state based on probability and vulnerability. “It is the first attempt to include state-level disaster risk scores in resource allocation and address a serious deficiency in the previous state-level allocations for disaster management," the commission said in its report tabled in Parliament on Saturday.
Odisha is the most disaster prone State in the country. The State scored the highest of 60 out of 70 in the Disaster Risk Index (DRI) prepared by the Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC).
A Disaster Risk Index (DRI) has been prepared by the FFC that assigns scores to each state based on probability and vulnerability.The 15th finance commission is exploring ways to change the way post-disaster management is financed, in a bid to ensure sufficient funds are kept aside for rehabilitation, mitigation and capacity-building rather than being allocated for just immediate relief.
“It is the first attempt to include state-level disaster risk scores in resource allocation and address a serious deficiency in the previous state-level allocations for disaster management," the commission said in its report tabled in Parliament on Saturday.
The vulnerability has been assigned based on the below poverty line population. States with poverty rate of 26 per cent and above have been assigned the highest score of 30. Those with poverty rates of 13-26 per cent got a score of 10 and below 13 per cent, the score assigned is five.
The vulnerability of the Orissa to disasters has also been rated highest owing to high poverty. The FFC has awarded the highest poverty point of 30 (as State’s poverty rate is 32.59%) to Odisha. As a consequence, Odisha tops the country in the DRI with a score of 90 out of 100.
The DRI has been developed through a quantitative exercise assigning scores to the probability of hazards and the extent of vulnerability of a state.
For vulnerability, the commission has used both income and non-incom dimensions like poor housing, informal jobs, social isolation and remote terrains.
The revised methodology for making allocations to states retains the importance assigned to the expenditure incurred by states on disaster management. In addition, it introduces weightages for area, population and risk profile of individual states to arrive at the final allocation.
A glance at the detailed DRI score reveals that Odisha has scored the maximum value of 15 each in floods, droughts and cyclones. Only in earthquake, the State figured in the least risk prone category. Odisha has been placed in the category of medium risk prone states in other disasters (including lightning).
Significantly, the FFC has made a little alteration in the allocation of resources to States for disaster management. While retaining the 14th FC criterion of expenditures by States on disaster management, the FFC included the parameters of area (15% weightage), population (15% wieightage) and disaster risk profile to arrive at the final allocation.
Seventy per cent weightage has been assigned to expenditure. Area and population have been given weightage of 15 per cent each.
Hazard zonation and risk exposure maps have been used to arrive at probability. While hazard has been assigned a score of 70, vulnerability has been given 30.
The four major hazards that have been assigned a score of 15 each are floods, drought, cyclone and earthquake. The remaining score of 10 has been assigned equally to all states for smaller hazards like landslides, windstorms, hailstorm, cloud burst and lightening.
States where floods affect more than 20 per cent of the total area are assigned a score of 15, while states where between 10 and 20 per cent of the total area is affected are assigned a score of 10.
The remaining states with less than 10 per cent of the area affected have been assigned a score of 5.
Arunachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are exceptions to the flood scoring. Arunachal has been given a high score because the Brahmaputra floods it every year. In the case of Tamil Nadu, the score is 10 since it experienced heavy floods in the recent past.
States, which have a larger share of chronically drought prone areas, are assigned a higher score of 15. Those with a significant share of such areas have been assigned 10. States like Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh are in the high risk category for both floods and drought.
The higher score of 15 has been assigned to Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal, which have very high cyclone-prone districts. Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Gujarat have been assigned 10.
For earthquake, all Northeastern and Himalayan states along with Bihar, Gujarat and Maharashtra have been given 15.